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Data Provider: Welsh Government National Statistics Percentage of people living in households in material deprivation by local authority
Local Authority[Filter]
[Expand]Click here to sort2017-18[Expand]Click here to sort2018-19[Collapse]2019-20[Expand]Click here to sort2020-21[Collapse]2021-22[Collapse]2022-23
Click here to sortPercentage of adults (16+)Click here to sortLower Confidence Interval (%)Click here to sortUpper Confidence Interval (%)Click here to sortPercentage of adults (16+)Click here to sortLower Confidence Interval (%)Click here to sortUpper Confidence Interval (%)Click here to sortPercentage of adults (16+)Click here to sortLower Confidence Interval (%)Click here to sortUpper Confidence Interval (%)
Wales 131214 111112161516
Isle of Anglesey 12815 961214918
Gwynedd 11814 13917151118
Conwy 141018 861110713
Denbighshire 9612 *The data item is disclosive or not sufficiently robust for publication*The data item is disclosive or not sufficiently robust for publication*The data item is disclosive or not sufficiently robust for publication151019
Flintshire 12915 1291513916
Wrexham 11714 13917161121
Powys 10812 9711141216
Ceredigion 11815 11815181423
Pembrokeshire 8511 12815131017
Carmarthenshire 11914 12915171221
Swansea 141217 11813131016
Neath Port Talbot 141017 141018211726
Bridgend 12915 8510161120
Vale of Glamorgan 8511 9611161120
Cardiff 131115 121014151218
Rhondda Cynon Taf 161319 131116201724
Merthyr Tydfil 211627 12916181323
Caerphilly 171421 131016151119
Blaenau Gwent 201524 141017161220
Torfaen 151119 11815191424
Monmouthshire 10713 75108512
Newport 12916 13916181322


General description

The National Survey for Wales is a survey of people across Wales, which was conducted face-to-face until March 2020 and over the telephone since. Each year around 12,000 people aged 16 and over are asked for their opinions on a wide range of issues affecting them and their local area. Respondents are selected at random to ensure the results are representative.

The Well-being of Future Generations Act 2015 is about improving the social, economic, environmental and cultural well-being of Wales. The Act puts in place seven well-being goals for Wales. These are for a more equal, prosperous, resilient, healthier and globally responsible Wales, with cohesive communities and a vibrant culture and thriving Welsh language. 46 national indicators were laid in March 2016 before the National Assembly. These national indicators were revised in December 2021 and a set of 50 national indicators were laid to replace those laid in 2016.The National Survey for Wales will be the data source for fifteen of the national indicators: indicators 3, 19, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 35, 36, 37, 38 and 46. The National Survey used to serve as the data source for national indicator 20, but the revised version laid in 2021 is no longer measured by the survey. Some indicators will be updated annually and others less frequently depending on how fast-changing the results are likely to be. Slower-changing topics will not be included in the survey, and therefore not updated, every year.

For further information, please see Weblinks.

Data collection and calculation

Collection of the results:

Every year over 20,000 addresses are chosen at random from the Royal Mail’s Small User Postcode Address File. Until March 2020 interviewers visited each address and randomly selected one adult (aged 16+) in the household, and then arranged to carry out a face-to-face interview with them. From May 2020 onwards, an introductory letter is still sent to randomly selected households, but they are now asked to call or fill in an online form to arrange a telephone interview.

During 2020-21, not all questions were asked in every month of the year, as the survey was conducted on a monthly and then quarterly basis and the questionnaire was changed between months/quarters. Specifically, 2020-21 results for indicators 23, 24, 25, 26 and 36 are from surveys that took place between January and March 2021.

The 2021-22 survey featured an online trial between July 2021 and January 2022, where a subset of respondents completed additional questions. This trial provides the 2021-22 results for indicators 28, 29 and 46.

The 2022-23 survey featured an online section answered by all respondents, which provides the 2022-23 results for indicators 28 and 29.

Not all questions are asked of all respondents. Some questions are not applicable to some respondents (e.g. they do not have children) and some questions are only asked of a random subsample of respondents because the results are only required at national level.

Like any figures based on a survey, these results are subject to margins of error. The margins of error (“confidence intervals”) are shown for each result. These give a range within which the true value is likely to fall.

Calculation of the indicators:
The results of the National Survey are weighted to compensate for unequal selection probabilities and differential non-response (i.e. to ensure that the age and sex distribution of the final dataset matches that of the Welsh population). Respondents who refused to answer a question or who responded ‘Don’t know’ are excluded from the results except where otherwise stated.

FG indicator 19 (Percentage of people living in households in material deprivation) is derived from a series of questions designed to measure the level of household material deprivation. The questions were taken from the Family Resources Survey (FRS), and the methodology used to classify people uses a similar, but not identical method (the FRS also uses income and some questions in the National Survey were only asked of those who were classed as ‘borderline’ deprived).

Non-pensioner adults were asked whether they had things like ‘a holiday away from home for at least a week a year’, ‘enough money to keep their home in a decent state of decoration’, or could ‘make regular savings of £10 a month or more’. The questions for non-pensioner adults focussed on whether they could afford these items.

Pensioners were asked slightly different questions such as whether their ‘home was kept adequately warm’, whether they had ‘access to a car or taxi, when needed’ or whether they ‘had their hair done or cut regularly’. These also asked whether they could afford them, but also focussed on not being able to have these items for other reasons, such as poor health, or no one to help them etc.

Those who did not have these items were given a score, such that if they didn’t have any item on the list, they would have a score of 100, and if they had all items, they had a score of 0. Non-pensioners with a score of 25 or more were classed as deprived and pensioners with a score of 20 or more were classed as deprived.

Non-pensioners and Pensioners have been grouped together for this indicator. For more information on how the material deprivation score was calculated please contact the National Survey team on

FG indicator 20 (Percentage of people moderately or very satisfied with their jobs) was the percentage of people who gave a score of 6 or more for their level of job satisfaction, where 0 was ‘not at all satisfied’ and 10 is ‘completely satisfied’. This indicator was collected until the 2021-22 survey year, in line with the indicator being revised.

FG indicator 23 (Percentage who feel able to influence decisions affecting their local area) is the percentage of people who ‘strongly agreed’ or ‘tended to agree’ with the statement “I can influence decisions affecting my local area”.

FG indicator 24 (Percentage of people satisfied with their ability to get to/ access the facilities and services they need) is the percentage of adults who report being very or fairly satisfied with their ability to get to services and facilities in their local area (within 15 to 20 minutes walk from their home).

FG indicator 25 (Percentage of people feeling safe at home, walking in the local area, and when travelling) is the percentage of people who report feeling ‘very safe’ or ‘fairly safe’ in all of the following situations after dark:
- at home
- walking alone
- travelling by public transport
- travelling by car.
A relatively high proportion of people answered ‘don’t know’ to their feeling of safety when travelling on public transport. Since the indicator is a measure of all four situations this means the valid sample size is reduced due to the large proportion of ‘Don’t know’ responses.

FG indicator 26 (Percentage of people satisfied with local area as a place to live) is the percentage of adults who report feeling very or fairly satisfied with their local area as a place to live.

FG indicator 27 (Percentage of people agreeing that they belong to the area; that people from different backgrounds get on well together; and that people treat each other with respect) is based on the proportion of people who strongly agree or tend to agree that:
- they belong to their local area;
- the local area is a place where people from different backgrounds get on well together; and
- that people in the local area treat each other with respect and consideration.
When asked whether people from different backgrounds get on well together, some explained that there were ‘too few people in the local area’ or that the people in their local area were all from the ‘same backgrounds’. These were also included as agreeing provided they ‘strongly agreed’ or ‘tended to agree’ with the other two statements.

FG indicator 28 (Percentage of people who Volunteer) is the percentage of adults who give their time for free to help clubs or organisations. The data presented does not include people who provide care for someone.

FG indicator 29 (Mean mental well-being score for people) is the mean mental well-being score according to the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS). To assesses mental well-being on the WEMWBS scale, respondents were given 14 statements such as “I’ve been feeling relaxed” and “I’ve been thinking clearly” and were asked how often they felt this way on a five point scale, where 1 was ‘none of the time’ and 5 ‘all of the time’. A score from 14 to 70 was subsequently calculated, with higher scores indicating better mental well-being.

FG indicator 30 (Percentage of people who are lonely) is the percentage of adults who are lonely according to the De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale. To assess levels of loneliness on this scale, respondents were given 6 statements such as “I miss having people around” and “There are enough people I feel close to” and were asked to indicate the extent to which these statements applied to them. A score from 0 to 6 was subsequently calculated, and those with a score of 4 or more were classed as lonely.

FG indicator 35 (Percentage of people attending or participating in arts, culture or heritage activities at least 3 times a year) is the percentage of adults who have attended or participated in at least 3 arts, culture or heritage activities in the previous 12 months.

FG indicator 36 is based on those who report being either ‘fluent in Welsh’, being able to ‘speak a fair amount of Welsh’, or those who could ‘only speak a little Welsh’; and who also speak Welsh daily.

FG indicator 37 (Percentage of people who can speak Welsh)
The Census of Population is the main source of information for the percentage of people who can speak Welsh. Between Censuses the National Survey is used to monitor trends for adults.
The indicator is based on adults aged 16 and over who report that they can speak Welsh. The question allows people to answer yes, no, and also allows people to spontaneously report that they can’t speak Welsh but that they have some skills in the language. This monitoring indicator is based only on those who answer ‘yes’ to this question.

FG indicator 38 (Percentage of people participating in sporting activities three or more times a week). For this indicator respondents were shown a series of indoor and outdoor activities and asked whether they had participated in any of them. If they did, they were asked how many times they had participated in the activity over the previous 4 weeks.

FG indicator 46 (Active global citizenship in Wales) is determined by people who performed at least 3 of the following actions to help with global issues:
Donated or raised money in the last 3 months; campaigned in the last 12 months; volunteered in the last 12 months; made changes to what they purchased to help with global issues.

For further information, please see the statistical first release and bulletins for the relevant year. Please see the National indicators for Wales: Technical document for information relating to the national indicators. These can be found under Weblinks.

Frequency of publication


Data reference periods

Data is shown from 2012-13 onwards where available. Not all indicators are updated every year. There was no survey in 2015-16.

There will be no survey in 2023-2024.

Users, uses and context

We have published reports on the key predictors for several Future Generations indicators based on National Survey results. The reports are available on our web pages and can help to identify actions that will improve progress against these indicators. Please see Weblinks.

The results will be of use to:
- Welsh Government policy teams
- Health Boards, Public Health Wales Observatory and NHS Wales Informatics Service (NWIS)
- Local Authorities
- Voluntary organisations
- Public Services’ communicators’ network CommsCymru
- Academics
- External organisations
- Individuals

Rounding applied

Percentages rounded to the nearest whole number.

Where survey results are not deemed sufficiently robust (i.e. less than 30 responses), values are suppressed. These are represented by “*” in the tables.

Revisions information

No scheduled revisions are planned. If revisions are made the revision process will be followed, please see Weblinks.

The percentage of people attending or participating in arts, culture or heritage activities 3 or more times a year was calculated incorrectly for our 2022-23 results. This has been corrected as of 17/11/23.


National Survey Indicators

Last update

October 2023 October 2023

Next update

August 2024 (provisional)

Publishing organisation

Welsh Government

Source 1

National Survey for Wales, Welsh Government

Contact email


National Statistics

Lowest level of geographical disaggregation

Local authorities

Geographical coverage


Languages covered

English and Welsh

Data licensing

You may use and re-use this data free of charge in any format or medium, under the terms of the Open Government License - see


National Survey for Wales; National Survey; Future Generation; FG; Indicators; National Indicators; Well-being;


Well-being of Future Generations (Wales) Act 2015:
How do you measure a nation’s progress? - National Indicators:
Wellbeing of Wales: national indicators:
Well-being of Wales: national indicator technical descriptions and data links:

National Survey for Wales website:
First releases (headline results):
Quality report:
Revisions, errors and postponements:
Technical information:

Reports on the key predictors:
Who is more likely to be in material deprivation?, 2014-15:
Who is more likely to be satisfied with their job?, 2013-14:
Who is more likely to feel able to influence decisions affecting their local area?, 2014-15:
Who is more likely to feel safe in their local area?, 2013-14:
Who is more likely to have a strong sense of community?, 2013-14:
Who is more likely to speak Welsh?, 2014-15:

Statistical quality

A summary Quality Report is available, containing detailed information on the quality of the survey as well as a summary of the methods used to compile the results; please see Weblinks.